METHODOLOGICAL NOTES AND SOURCES
1. Data sources
1.1. Legal background
Statistical data on external trade are collected, verified, processed by the Customs Service, according the article 321 of the Custom Code (Rules) of the Republic of Moldova and are presented to the National Bureau of Statistics for completion, finalization and publication according the articles 9, 10, 11, 19, 20 and 21 of the Law on Official Statistics of the Republic of Moldova.
1.2. Data sources
The basic document for statistical reporting for exports/imports of goods – the subject of commercial transactions – is the detailed Customs Declaration, which is filled in at the Customs points at the moment when the goods enter or leave the country. For the goods transported by cable or pipes, the source of operative data is the statistical report № EI-I “Export (Import) of electricity and natural gas” filled in by the importer or exporter based on the documents of reception-delivery.
The specialists of the Division of Information Technologies and Customs Statistics of the Customs Service collect the Customs Declarations at the Customs points.
Data are verified and processed in the frame of this Division of Flows Information and Customs Statistics of the Customs Service.
National Bureau of Statistics is responsible for data completion, finalization and publication of the External Merchandise Trade Statistics.
2. Methodological notes
2.1. External Trade Statistics
External Trade Statistics of the Republic of Moldova is produced according recommended of the Statistical Commission of United Nations (International Merchandise Trade Statistics – Concepts and Definitions, Series M No. 52, Rev. 2), and EUROSTAT legislation (Council Regulation (CE) No.1172/95 – EXTRASTAT) on international trade with third countries and Commission Regulation (CE) No.1917/2000 concerning implementation of Council Regulation (CE) No. 1172/95.
The definitions of custom regime relevant for determining the trade system and the coverage area are used in the development of external trade statistics.
2.2. Statistical territory
The territory taken into account in the External Trade Statistics is referred to the economic territory of the country, to which the national custom legislation applies, but, it does not coincide with the geographic area of the country (excepting the region from the left side of the river Nistru).
2.3. Trade system
Trade system used in the production of statistics on Foreign Trade of the Republic of Moldova is General Trade System.
2.4. External trade with goods
External trade with goods covers the totality of tangible goods which are added to the stock of material resources of the country (imports) or are taken off them (exports), by entering or leaving the territory of the country.
There are distinguished three types of imported goods:
• Foreign goods (other than compensating products after outward processing);
• Foreign goods compensating products after outward processing;
• Domestic goods in the same state as previously exported.
There are distinguished three types of exported goods:
• Domestic goods from the free circulation area or industrial free zones;
• Domestic goods compensating products after inward processing;
• Foreign goods in the same state as previously imported.
There are some goods, which can be subject to Customs entrances; however, according methodological provisions of external trade, the following items are excluded from the volume of Exports-Imports of the Republic of Moldova:
- Monetary gold, gold pieces and bars exchanged between monetary institutions;
- Issued banknotes and securities and coins in circulation;
- Goods temporarily admitted or dispatched. Moldovan goods which are temporarily abroad and, accordingly, foreign goods temporarily placed in our country (which within a limited time of use shall be returned in the origin country) for trade fairs and exhibitions, commercial samples and pedagogic material, packaging, means of transport, containers and equipment connected with transport, animals for breeding, show or racing, are excluded from external trade with goods;
- Goods in transit on the territory of the Republic of Moldova (for transport reasons), goods entering or leaving the country with the exclusive purpose of reaching a third country, are excluded since they do not add to or subtract from the stock of material resources of the country through which they pass;
- Goods consigned to and from territorial enclaves. The economic territory of a country includes any territorial enclaves (embassies, foreign military and other installations) that are physically located within geographic boundaries of another country, and excludes the enclaves of other countries and international organisations located within its own geographic boundaries. Therefore, the movement of merchandise between a country and its enclaves abroad is considered as an internal flow, and should be excluded from the imports and exports of host country (the country that has the territorial enclaves of other countries and international organisations within its geographic boundaries). Similarly, goods received or sent abroad by international organisations are excluded from the merchandise trade statistics of the host countries;
- Non-financial assets, ownership of which has been transferred from residents to non-residents, without crossing borders. These assets include land, structures, equipment and inventories. Such a transfer of ownership of non-financial assets is considered to be a financial operation, and is therefore excluded from international merchandise trade statistics;
- Goods treated as part of trade in services. This category comprises:
• goods acquired by all categories of travellers, including non-resident workers, for their own use and carried across the border in amounts or values not exceeding those established by the national law;
• newspapers and periodicals sent under direct subscription;
• goods purchased by foreign Governments through their embassies or their foreign military or other installations located in the economic territory of a host country for their own use;
• diskettes or CD-ROMs with stored computer software and/or data developed to order; audio- and videotapes containing original recordings; customised blueprints, etc.;
- Fish caught on the high seas by national vessels of a country and landed in its economic territory;
- Goods which are acquired and relinquished by non-residents within the same recording period, and which do not cross the frontiers of this country;
- Goods under operational lease (rent or use for a time less than one year);
- Goods lost or destroyed after leaving the economic territory of the exporting country but before entering the economic territory of the intended importing country are to be excluded from imports of the intended importing country (although they are included as exports of the exporting country);
- Empty bottles which are returned to be refilled are considered as “means of transport” and are accordingly excluded;
- Waste and scrap having no positive value are to be excluded;
- Food and fuel acquired by Moldovan vessels or aircraft outside the national territory are not included in imports;
- Goods with the value under valuation threshold for custom taxation, established by the national legislation.
2.5. Statistical value of exports and imports
Statistical valuation of exports is produced in FOB prices, statistical valuation of imports – in CIF prices.
The statistical value of exported goods be an FOB-type value, which represents the value of exported goods at the place and date when the goods leave the statistical territory of the Republic of Moldova (the value at which the exporter sold the goods, including the cost of transport and other costs for delivery and dispatch of goods on transport means at the country frontier).
The statistical value of imported goods be a CIF-type value, which represents the custom value of imported goods at the entrance frontier point in the Republic of Moldova (value at which the goods are bought by importer, including costs for transport and insurance to deliver the goods at the country frontier).
Statistical value is recorded in national currency and it is calculated by transforming the operation currency in Lei, according legal provisions.
Statistical value does not include any charges resulting from import or export, such as: custom taxes, VAT, excises or other similar taxes.
In case of goods that represent humanitarian aid, object of barter operations, etc., the estimation of exports/imports of goods is calculated in the prices of the same goods for which the import/export operations are performed, on commercial basis or in prices of world market.
2.6. Conversion of foreign currencies in national currency, US Dollars, Euro
The value of international transactions can be expressed in a variety of currencies. Conversion of foreign currencies in Lei is performed based on official rates established by the National Bank of the Republic of Moldova at the date of registration of custom declaration.
Data in US Dollars and Euro are calculated according data in Lei, using the official rate of the National Bank for the two currencies.
2.7. Quantitative reporting of goods
Quantitative reporting of goods, both for exports and imports, is done in net mass (weight) expressed in kilograms (excluding packages) and for some goods – in one or more quantity units specific for certain goods, mentioned in parallel with types of goods in the Nomenclature of Goods – pieces, m3, pairs, kW/h, etc.
2.8. Geographic distribution of exports (imports)
Distribution by countries of exported goods is performed by the last country of destination of goods, while for imports – by the country of origin.
The “country of destination” for exports is considered the last known country at the export moment, where goods are to be dispatched for consumption (public and private consumption, or used in the production process).
The “country of origin” for imports is considered the country where the goods were processed completely or the last country where the goods were significantly changed (in case when two or more countries were involved in the production process).
If the country of last destination or the origin country of the goods is unknown at the delivery moment then the export (import) is set by the country of consignment/destination of goods.
3. Nomenclatures used in External Trade
3.1. Nomenclature of Goods
Merchandise trade statistics of the Republic of Moldova is produced according international methodology, and the exported-imported goods are classified according the Nomenclature of Goods, developed on the basis of Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS-2007) and the Combined Nomenclature (CN). This Nomenclature constitutes the basis of custom duty of the Republic of Moldova, approved by the Government Decision №. 1525 from December, 29, 2007. The first six digits of every position of the Nomenclature of Goods correspond completely to the Harmonized System (HS 2007), six digits plus the 7th and the 8th correspond to the Combined Nomenclature of the European Union, the 9th digit represents the national detailed of goods.
Nomenclature of Goods represents the multifunctional classification of goods which circulate on world market and is used in the development of custom duty and statistical recording of external trade operations. The nature of goods constitutes the basic criterion of this Nomenclature the goods are listed according processing stage: raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products.
Standard International Trade Classification (SITC Rev. 4) is most suitable for economic analyses; the goods are classified according processing stage and also the Classification of Big Economic Categories, where the SITC Rev. 4 goods are grouped in big economic classes according their final use, relevant for statistical analyses and National Accounts.
Data on goods from the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities are produced based on transition tables between these nomenclatures and the Nomenclature of Goods.
The Classification of countries and territories developed by UN Statistical Division (ISO Standard 3166-88) was used until 2005. The nomenclature of countries and territories used for external trade statistics of European Union and its relations with member-states and third countries is the Regulation CE 1833/2006 from December, 13, 2006.
The countries are grouped by continents according recommendations of statistical office of European Union (EUROSTAT), while economic groups by countries are presented by the UN monthly statistical Bulletin.
- Commonwealth of Independent States: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine.
- European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
- OECD countries: Australia, Austria, , Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America, Virgin Islands (US).
- EFTA countries: Switzerland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway.
- OPEC countries: Algeria, Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela.
- BSEC countries: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, Serbia and Montenegro, Ukraine.
4.1. Value indices
Value indices present the general trend of exports and imports and are calculated as the relation between the values (US dollars) of the reporting year and those of the base year (previous year).
4.2. Annual variation or rhythm of annual modification
Annual variation or rhythm of annual modification of exports and imports indicate the increase or decrease in per cents of the indicator’s level in the reporting year in comparison with the base year (previous year). The annual variation was determined based on the data expressed in US dollars.
4.3. Unit value indices for imported-exported goods
Unit value indices for imported-exported goods are calculated based on the average unit values expressed in US dollars, according to Paasche formula.
Previous year is used as the base for calculation of unit value indices for imported-exported goods.
4.4. Data sources
The calculation of unit value indices is done based on the data from Custom Declarations, separately for each commodity (8 digits level), group of commodities (6, 4, 2 digits level), and total exports (imports), according the Nomenclature of Goods. Selected commodities (representative goods) for the calculations include homogenous goods with information available on quantity and cost and that are present both in reporting period and in base period. For the aggregation of unit value indices, calculated at 8 digits on different levels of the Nomenclature of Goods and by total of exports (imports), the value of goods in current period is used as the weighting element.